Tuesday, August 26, 2014

ADENOSINE

Adenosine (ADO) is a purine nucleoside comprising a molecule of adenine attached to a ribose sugar molecule (ribofuranose) moiety via a β-N9-glycosidic bond.

Adenosine plays an important role in biochemical processes, such as energy transfer — as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) — as well as in signal transduction as cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). It is also a neuromodulator, believed to play a role in promoting sleep and suppressing arousal.

Adenosine also plays a role in regulation of blood flow to various organs through vasodilation.



USE

Treatment of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, Diagnosis of re-entrant atrial and ventricular tachycardia.

SIDE EFFECTS

Facial flushing, palpitations, chest pain, bradycardia, sweating, hypotension, dyspnoea, choking sensation, headache, lightheadedness, tingling, numbness, neck and back pain, nausea, metallic taste.
DRUG INTERACTION

Dipyridamole (Persantine) interacts with ADENOSINE. The body breaks down adenosine to get rid off it. Dipyridamole (Persantine) can decrease the break down of adenosine. Decreasing the breakdown of adenosine can cause heart problems. Do not take adenosine if you are taking dipyridamole (Persantine).
MECHANISM OF ACTION

Adenosine acts rapidly to slow down conduction through the AV node via the A1 receptors. It also mediates peripheral and coronary vasodilatation by stimulating the A2 receptors. Extremely short plasma half-life (<10 1-2="" and="" causes="" concern="" cumulative="" dosage="" dosing.="" during="" effect="" every="" iv="" min="" no="" of="" p="" permits="" repeated="" sec="" through="" titration="" use="">

Adenoz (6 Mg)(2 ml in Vial)
Celon Labs
Rs. 54.50/Injection
Rs.109

Adenoject (6 Mg)(2 ml in Vial)
Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
Rs. 107.50/Injection
Rs.215

Carnosine (6 Mg)(2 ml in Vial)
Samarth Life Sciences Pvt. Ltd
Rs. 108/Injection
Rs.216

Adenosine (6 Mg)(2 ml in Vial)
Samarth Life Sciences Pvt. Ltd
Rs. 108/Injection
Rs.216

Adenocor 3 Mg(2 ml in Vial)
Sanofi Torrent Ltd
Rs. 120.28/Injection
Rs.240.55

Adnet (6 Mg)(2 ml in Vial)
SPM Drugs Pvt. Ltd.
Rs. 137.50/Injection
Rs.275

Adenocor (6 Mg)(2 ml in Vial)
Sanofi Synthelabo (India) Ltd
Rs. 214.91/Injection
Rs.429.83

Adenoject (30 Mg)(1 Unit in Vial)
Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
Rs. 934/Injection
Rs.934

Carnosine (30 Mg)(1 Unit in Vial)
Samarth Life Sciences Pvt. Ltd
Rs. 995/Injection
Rs.995

Thursday, August 21, 2014

AMOXYCILLIN + DICLOXACILLIN

Amoxicillin (250MG)

INDICATORS
Pregnancy:B Lactation:L1 Lab:NA Food:NA

USE

Respiratory, genito-urinary, skin and soft tissue, ENT infections due to susceptible strains of Gram negative organisms like H.influenzae, E-coli, P.mirabilis and N. gonorrhoea.

SIDE EFFECTS

Abscesses, acute bronchitis, bacteriuria, bronchitis, carbuncles, cellulitis, chronic bronchitis, cystitis, dental abscess, dental abscess (short-course), endocarditis, furunculosis, gonorrhoea, gynecological infections, haemophilus influenzae infections, dizziness, headache, anorexia, iarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, maculopapular rash, rashes, gastritis, indigestion, urticarial skin rash.

DRUG INTERACTION

Amoxicillin is known to interact with other drugs like chloramphenicol, methotrexate, probenecid, rabeprazole, sodium picosulphate, tetracycline (HCl), warfarin (Na).

MECHANISM OF ACTION

Amoxicillin binds to penicillin-binding protein 1A (PBP-1A) located inside the bacterial cell well. Penicillins acylate the penicillin-sensitive transpeptidase C-terminal domain by opening the lactam ring. This inactivation of the enzyme prevents the formation of a cross-link of two linear peptidoglycan strands, inhibiting the third and last stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis. Cell lysis is then mediated by bacterial cell wall autolytic enzymes such as autolysins; it is possible that amoxicllin interferes with an autolysin inhibitor.


Dicloxacillin (250MG)

INDICATORS
Pregnancy:B Lactation:L3 Lab:NA Food:NA

USE

Pneumonia, infections of the ear, urinary tract

SIDE EFFECTS

Pseudomembranous colitis, GI bleeding, hepatitis, cholestatic jaundice, stevens johnson syndrome, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, maculopapular rash, urticaria, phlebitis.

DRUG INTERACTION

Dicloxacillin is known to interact with other drugs like ampicillin, chloramphenicol, probenecid, tetracycline (HCl). Always consult your physician for the change of dose regimen or an alternative drug of choice that may strictly be required.

MECHANISM OF ACTION

Dicloxacillin binding to specific penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located inside the bacterial cell wall, dicloxacillin inhibits the third and last stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis. Cell lysis is then mediated by bacterial cell wall autolytic enzymes such as autolysins.