Tuesday, August 26, 2014

ADENOSINE

Adenosine (ADO) is a purine nucleoside comprising a molecule of adenine attached to a ribose sugar molecule (ribofuranose) moiety via a β-N9-glycosidic bond.

Adenosine plays an important role in biochemical processes, such as energy transfer — as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) — as well as in signal transduction as cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). It is also a neuromodulator, believed to play a role in promoting sleep and suppressing arousal.

Adenosine also plays a role in regulation of blood flow to various organs through vasodilation.



USE

Treatment of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, Diagnosis of re-entrant atrial and ventricular tachycardia.

SIDE EFFECTS

Facial flushing, palpitations, chest pain, bradycardia, sweating, hypotension, dyspnoea, choking sensation, headache, lightheadedness, tingling, numbness, neck and back pain, nausea, metallic taste.
DRUG INTERACTION

Dipyridamole (Persantine) interacts with ADENOSINE. The body breaks down adenosine to get rid off it. Dipyridamole (Persantine) can decrease the break down of adenosine. Decreasing the breakdown of adenosine can cause heart problems. Do not take adenosine if you are taking dipyridamole (Persantine).
MECHANISM OF ACTION

Adenosine acts rapidly to slow down conduction through the AV node via the A1 receptors. It also mediates peripheral and coronary vasodilatation by stimulating the A2 receptors. Extremely short plasma half-life (<10 1-2="" and="" causes="" concern="" cumulative="" dosage="" dosing.="" during="" effect="" every="" iv="" min="" no="" of="" p="" permits="" repeated="" sec="" through="" titration="" use="">

Adenoz (6 Mg)(2 ml in Vial)
Celon Labs
Rs. 54.50/Injection
Rs.109

Adenoject (6 Mg)(2 ml in Vial)
Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
Rs. 107.50/Injection
Rs.215

Carnosine (6 Mg)(2 ml in Vial)
Samarth Life Sciences Pvt. Ltd
Rs. 108/Injection
Rs.216

Adenosine (6 Mg)(2 ml in Vial)
Samarth Life Sciences Pvt. Ltd
Rs. 108/Injection
Rs.216

Adenocor 3 Mg(2 ml in Vial)
Sanofi Torrent Ltd
Rs. 120.28/Injection
Rs.240.55

Adnet (6 Mg)(2 ml in Vial)
SPM Drugs Pvt. Ltd.
Rs. 137.50/Injection
Rs.275

Adenocor (6 Mg)(2 ml in Vial)
Sanofi Synthelabo (India) Ltd
Rs. 214.91/Injection
Rs.429.83

Adenoject (30 Mg)(1 Unit in Vial)
Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
Rs. 934/Injection
Rs.934

Carnosine (30 Mg)(1 Unit in Vial)
Samarth Life Sciences Pvt. Ltd
Rs. 995/Injection
Rs.995

Thursday, August 21, 2014

AMOXYCILLIN + DICLOXACILLIN

Amoxicillin (250MG)

INDICATORS
Pregnancy:B Lactation:L1 Lab:NA Food:NA

USE

Respiratory, genito-urinary, skin and soft tissue, ENT infections due to susceptible strains of Gram negative organisms like H.influenzae, E-coli, P.mirabilis and N. gonorrhoea.

SIDE EFFECTS

Abscesses, acute bronchitis, bacteriuria, bronchitis, carbuncles, cellulitis, chronic bronchitis, cystitis, dental abscess, dental abscess (short-course), endocarditis, furunculosis, gonorrhoea, gynecological infections, haemophilus influenzae infections, dizziness, headache, anorexia, iarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, maculopapular rash, rashes, gastritis, indigestion, urticarial skin rash.

DRUG INTERACTION

Amoxicillin is known to interact with other drugs like chloramphenicol, methotrexate, probenecid, rabeprazole, sodium picosulphate, tetracycline (HCl), warfarin (Na).

MECHANISM OF ACTION

Amoxicillin binds to penicillin-binding protein 1A (PBP-1A) located inside the bacterial cell well. Penicillins acylate the penicillin-sensitive transpeptidase C-terminal domain by opening the lactam ring. This inactivation of the enzyme prevents the formation of a cross-link of two linear peptidoglycan strands, inhibiting the third and last stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis. Cell lysis is then mediated by bacterial cell wall autolytic enzymes such as autolysins; it is possible that amoxicllin interferes with an autolysin inhibitor.


Dicloxacillin (250MG)

INDICATORS
Pregnancy:B Lactation:L3 Lab:NA Food:NA

USE

Pneumonia, infections of the ear, urinary tract

SIDE EFFECTS

Pseudomembranous colitis, GI bleeding, hepatitis, cholestatic jaundice, stevens johnson syndrome, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, maculopapular rash, urticaria, phlebitis.

DRUG INTERACTION

Dicloxacillin is known to interact with other drugs like ampicillin, chloramphenicol, probenecid, tetracycline (HCl). Always consult your physician for the change of dose regimen or an alternative drug of choice that may strictly be required.

MECHANISM OF ACTION

Dicloxacillin binding to specific penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located inside the bacterial cell wall, dicloxacillin inhibits the third and last stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis. Cell lysis is then mediated by bacterial cell wall autolytic enzymes such as autolysins.

Wednesday, August 20, 2014

AMOXICILLIN

Amoxicillin  or amoxycillin , and abbreviated amox, is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.

It is a moderate-spectrum, bacteriolytic, β-lactam antibiotic in the aminopenicillin family used to treat susceptible Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It is usually the drug of choice within the class because it is better-absorbed, following oral administration, than other β-lactam antibiotics.

Amoxicillin is susceptible to degradation by β-lactamase-producing bacteria, which are resistant to a narrow spectrum of β-lactam antibiotics, such as penicillin. For this reason, it is often combined with clavulanic acid, a β-lactamase inhibitor. This increases effectiveness by reducing its susceptibility to β-lactamase resistance.

Amoxicillin is one of the most common antibiotics prescribed for children. The drug first became available in 1972. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, a list of the most important medication needed in a basic health system.

INDICATORS
Pregnancy:B Lactation:L1 Lab:NA Food:NA

 USE
Respiratory, genito-urinary, skin and soft tissue, ENT infections due to susceptible strains of Gram negative organisms like H.influenzae, E-coli, P.mirabilis and N. gonorrhoea.

SIDE EFFECTS
Abscesses, acute bronchitis, bacteriuria, bronchitis, carbuncles, cellulitis, chronic bronchitis, cystitis, dental abscess, dental abscess (short-course), endocarditis, furunculosis, gonorrhoea, gynecological infections, haemophilus influenzae infections, dizziness, headache, anorexia, iarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, maculopapular rash, rashes, gastritis, indigestion, urticarial skin rash.

DRUG INTERACTION

Amoxicillin is known to interact with other drugs like chloramphenicol, methotrexate, probenecid, rabeprazole, sodium picosulphate, tetracycline (HCl), warfarin (Na).

MECHANISM OF ACTION

Amoxicillin binds to penicillin-binding protein 1A (PBP-1A) located inside the bacterial cell well. Penicillins acylate the penicillin-sensitive transpeptidase C-terminal domain by opening the lactam ring. This inactivation of the enzyme prevents the formation of a cross-link of two linear peptidoglycan strands, inhibiting the third and last stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis. Cell lysis is then mediated by bacterial cell wall autolytic enzymes such as autolysins; it is possible that amoxicllin interferes with an autolysin inhibitor.

Monday, August 18, 2014

VIZYLAC CAPSULE


(10 Capsules in Strip)
Unichem Laboratories Ltd
Rs. 2.17 / Capsule
Rs.21.75

Composition
Pyridoxine (0.75mg),Riboflavin (2.5mg),D-Panthenol (2.5mg),Thiamine(2.5 mg),Nicotinic Acid (22.5 mg)
Pyridoxine (0.75mg)

INDICATORS
Pregnancy:B Lactation:L2 Lab:NA Food:NA

 USAGE
Anaemia, Deficiency states, Idiopathic sideroblastic anaemia, Isoniazid neuropathy, Oedema and ascites in cirrhosis of the liver, Premenstrual syndrome, Schizophrenia and other psychoses, Vitamin deficiency.

SIDE EFFECTS
Dizziness, Drowsiness, Blurred vision, Pain, Burning.

DRUG INTERACTION
None mentioned.

MECHANISM OF ACTION

Vitamin B6 is the collective term for a group of three related compounds, pyridoxine (PN), pyridoxal (PL) and pyridoxamine (PM), and their phosphorylated derivatives, pyridoxine 5'-phosphate (PNP), pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) and pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP). Although all six of these compounds should technically be referred to as vitamin B6, the term vitamin B6 is commonly used interchangeably with just one of them, pyridoxine. Vitamin B6, principally in its biologically active coenzyme form pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, is involved in a wide range of biochemical reactions, including the metabolism of amino acids and glycogen, the synthesis of nucleic acids, hemogloblin, sphingomyelin and other sphingolipids, and the synthesis of the neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).


Riboflavin (2.5mg)
INDICATORS
Pregnancy:A Lactation:L2 Lab:NA Food:NA

TYPICAL USAGE - Arabinoflavinosis, Vitamin deficiency.

SIDE EFFECTS - Discoloration of urine, Swelling of face, Difficulty breathing, Swelling of lips and tongue.

DRUG INTERACTION - Arabinoflavinosis, Vitamin deficiency.

MECHANISM OF ACTION
Binds to riboflavin hydrogenase, riboflavin kinase, and riboflavin synthase. Riboflavin is the precursor of flavin mononucleotide (FMN, riboflavin monophosphate) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). The antioxidant activity of riboflavin is principally derived from its role as a precursor of FAD and the role of this cofactor in the production of the antioxidant reduced glutathione. Reduced glutathione is the cofactor of the selenium-containing glutathione peroxidases among other things. The glutathione peroxidases are major antioxidant enzymes. Reduced glutathione is generated by the FAD-containing enzyme glutathione reductase.


D-Panthenol (2.5mg)

INDICATORS - Pregnancy:A Lactation:L1 Lab:NA Food:NA


Thiamine(2.5 Mg)

INDICATORS - Pregnancy:C Lactation:L3 Lab:NA Food:NA

TYPICAL USAGE
Lung cancer and pancreatic cancer, mild chronic deficiency, severe deficiency, thiamine deficiency prophylaxis, thiamine deficiency treatment.

SIDE EFFECTS
Nausea, urticaria, Gi bleeding, angioneurotic edema, restlessness, pruritis, pulmonary edema, hemorrhage, cyanosis,

DRUG INTERACTION
Thiamine is known to interact with other drugs like aluminium hydroxide and oxide, amiloride (HCl), bumetanide, chlorthalidone, estradiol (Valerate), estrogens conjugated, fluorouracil, magnesium carbonate, magnesium oxides and hydroxides, metformin (HCl), phenobarbital Sodium, phenobarbitone, triamterene, vecuronium (Br). Always consult your physician for the change of dose regimen or an alternative drug of choice that may strictly be required.

MECHANISM OF ACTION
Thiamine is mainly the transport form of the vitamin, while the active forms are phosphorylated thiamine derivatives. There are five known natural thiamine phosphate derivatives: thiamine monophosphate (ThMP), thiamine diphosphate (ThDP), also sometimes called thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), thiamine triphosphate (ThTP), and the recently discovered adenosine thiamine triphosphate (AThTP), and adenosine thiamine diphosphate. Each derivative has unique functions, however, most are involved as coenzymes.


Nicotinic Acid (22.5 Mg)

INDICATORS - Pregnancy:C Lactation:L5 Lab:NA Food:NA

TYPICAL USAGE - Treatment of nicotine dependence, as an aid to smoking cessation.

SIDE EFFECTS
Urticaria, cramps, myalgia, blurred vision, acanthosis nigricans, ichthyosis, toxic amblyopia, atrial arrhythmias, elevated serum aspartate transaminase, hepatitis, hepatic failure, flushing, headache, pruritus, diarrhea, gastric irritation, flushing, bloating.

DRUG INTERACTION
Nicotinic Acid is known to interact with other drugs like alcohol, atorvastatin, colestipol (HCl), fluvastatin, glibornuride, gliquidone, technetium Tc-99m disofenin, technetium Tc-99m lidofenin. Always consult your physician for the change of dose regimen or an alternative drug of choice that may strictly be required.

MECHANISM OF ACTION
Nicotinic acid is a derivative of vitamin B and is incorporated into coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP), which are involved in multiple cellular metabolic pathways. Nicotinic acid also reduces total serum cholesterol, LDL, VLDL, and triglycerides, and increases HDL cholesterol. It appears to decrease hepatic synthesis of VLDL.

Sunday, May 25, 2014

TORASEMIDE

Torasemide  or torsemide  is a pyridine-sulfonyl urea type loop diuretic mainly used in the management of edema associated with congestive heart failure. It is also used at low doses for the management of hypertension. It is marketed under the brand name Demadex, Diuver and Examide.


Compared to other loop diuretics, torasemide has a more prolonged diuretic effect than equipotent doses of furosemide and relatively decreased potassium-loss. There is no evidence of torasemide-induced ototoxicity demonstrated in humans.
USES: Torsemide is used to reduce extra fluid in the body (edema) caused by conditions such as heart failure, liver disease, and kidney disease. This can lessen symptoms such as shortness of breath and swelling in your arms, legs, and abdomen.This drug is also used to treat high blood pressure. Lowering high blood pressure helps prevent strokes, heart attacks, and kidney problems.Torsemide is a "water pill" (diuretic) that causes you to make more urine. This helps your body get rid of extra water and salt.


N-[(isopropylamino)carbonyl]-4-[(3-methylphenyl)amino]pyridine-3-sulfonamide

OVERDOSE: If overdose is suspected, contact a poison control center or emergency room immediately. US residents can call their local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. Canada residents can call a provincial poison control center. Symptoms of overdose may include: fainting, severe weakness, a severe decrease in the amount of urine.

NOTES: Do not share this medication with others.Lifestyle changes that may help this medication work better include exercising, stopping smoking, reducing stress, and changing your diet. Consult your doctor for more details.Laboratory and/or medical tests (such as kidney tests, blood mineral levels such as potassium) should be performed periodically to monitor your progress or check for side effects. Consult your doctor for more details.Check your blood pressure regularly while taking this medication. Learn how to monitor your own blood pressure at home, and share the results with your doctor.

MISSED DOSE: If you miss a dose, take it as soon as you remember. If it is near the time of the next dose, skip the missed dose and resume your usual dosing schedule. Do not double the dose to catch up.

STORAGE: Store at room temperature away from light and moisture. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep all medications away from children and pets.Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company.


SIDE EFFECTS: Dizziness or headache may occur as your body adjusts to the medication. If either of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly.To reduce the risk of dizziness and lightheadedness, get up slowly when rising from a sitting or lying position.Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.This medication may cause a serious loss of body water (dehydration) and salt/minerals. Tell your doctor right away if you have any of these unlikely but serious side effects: muscle cramps, weakness, unusual tiredness, confusion, severe dizziness, fainting, drowsiness, unusual dry mouth/thirst, nausea, vomiting, fast/irregular heartbeat, unusual decrease in the amount of urine.Tell your doctor right away if any of these rare but serious side effects occur: numbness/tingling/pain/redness/swelling of the arms/legs, hearing changes (such as ringing in the ears, temporary or permanent decreased hearing/deafness).A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, get medical help right away if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist


DRUG INTERACTIONS: See also the How to Use section.Drug interactions may change how your medications work or increase your risk for serious side effects. This document does not contain all possible drug interactions. Keep a list of all the products you use (including prescription/nonprescription drugs and herbal products) and share it with your doctor and pharmacist. Do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any medicines without your doctor's approval.A product that may interact with this drug is: lithium.Check the labels on all your medicines (such as cough-and-cold products, diet aids, or NSAIDs such as ibuprofen, naproxen) because they may contain ingredients that could increase your blood pressure or worsen swelling (edema). Ask your pharmacist for more details



BRAND NAME
COMPOSITION
COMPANY
Packing
MRP
Rs.
DIURATOR tab
Torsemide 10mg
ELLIFE (ELDER)
10
20.50
DIURATOR tab
Torsemide 20mg
ELLIFE (ELDER)
10
37.50
DYTOR tab
Torsemide 5mg
CIPLA
10
13.25
DYTOR tab
Torsemide 10mg
CIPLA
10
21.50
DYTOR tab
Torsemide 20mg
CIPLA
10
40.00
DYTOR tab
Torsemide 40mg
CIPLA
10
N.A.
DYTOR tab
Torsemide 100mg
CIPLA
10
150.00
DYTOR inj
Torsemide 10mg
CIPLA
2ml
7.90
DYTOR PLUS 10 tab
Torsemide 10mg, spironolactone 50mg
CIPLA
10
N.A.
DYTOR PLUS 20 tab
Torsemide 20mg, spironolactone 50mg
CIPLA
10
N.A.
RETORLIX tab
Torsemide 5mg
LUPIN
10
13.90
RETORLIX tab
Torsemide 10mg
LUPIN
10
24.40
RETORLIX tab
Torsemide 20mg
LUPIN
10
42.50
RETORLIX tab
Torsemide 100mg
LUPIN
10
155.00
RETORLIX inj
Torsemide 10mg/ml
LUPIN
vial
N.A.
RETORLIX SP tab
Torsemide 5mg, spironolactone 50mg
LUPIN
10
N.A.
RETORLIX SP tab
Torsemide 10mg, spironolactone 50mg
LUPIN
10
N.A.
TIDE tab
Torsemide 10mg
TORRENT
10
22.40
TIDE tab
Torsemide 20mg
TORRENT
10
36.50
TIDE tab
Torsemide 100mg
TORRENT
10
150.00
TOMARIS tab
Torsemide 5mg
ASTRA ZENECA
10
20.00
TOMARIS tab
Torsemide 10mg
ASTRA ZENECA
10
N.A.
TOMARIS tab
Torsemide 20mg
ASTRA ZENECA
10
N.A.
TOR tab
Torsemide 10mg
INTAS
10
22.60
TOR tab
Torsemide 20mg
INTAS
10
45.00
TOR inj
Torsemide 10mg
INTAS
2ml
N.A.
TORIDE tab
Torsemide 10mg
RANBAXY
10
24.40
TORIDE tab
Torsemide 20mg
RANBAXY
10
42.50
TORIDE tab
Torsemide 100mg
RANBAXY
10
149.90
TORSEMI tab
Torsemide 10mg
FDC
10
N.A.
TORSEMI tab
Torsemide 20mg
FDC
10
N.A.
TORSINEX tab
Torsemide 10mg
MICRO
10
19.50
TORSINEX tab
Torsemide 20mg
MICRO
10
36.50
TOSEC-10 tab
Torsemide 10mg
INTAS
10
N.A.
TOSEC-20 tab
Torsemide 20mg
INTAS
10
N.A.
URITOR-10 tab
Torsemide 10mg
SALVIA LABS
10
26.10
URITOR-20 tab
Torsemide 20mg
SALVIA LABS
10
45.00
URITOR-40 tab
Torsemide 40mg
SALVIA LABS
10
88.30