Tuesday, August 26, 2014

ADENOSINE

Adenosine (ADO) is a purine nucleoside comprising a molecule of adenine attached to a ribose sugar molecule (ribofuranose) moiety via a β-N9-glycosidic bond.

Adenosine plays an important role in biochemical processes, such as energy transfer — as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) — as well as in signal transduction as cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). It is also a neuromodulator, believed to play a role in promoting sleep and suppressing arousal.

Adenosine also plays a role in regulation of blood flow to various organs through vasodilation.



USE

Treatment of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, Diagnosis of re-entrant atrial and ventricular tachycardia.

SIDE EFFECTS

Facial flushing, palpitations, chest pain, bradycardia, sweating, hypotension, dyspnoea, choking sensation, headache, lightheadedness, tingling, numbness, neck and back pain, nausea, metallic taste.
DRUG INTERACTION

Dipyridamole (Persantine) interacts with ADENOSINE. The body breaks down adenosine to get rid off it. Dipyridamole (Persantine) can decrease the break down of adenosine. Decreasing the breakdown of adenosine can cause heart problems. Do not take adenosine if you are taking dipyridamole (Persantine).
MECHANISM OF ACTION

Adenosine acts rapidly to slow down conduction through the AV node via the A1 receptors. It also mediates peripheral and coronary vasodilatation by stimulating the A2 receptors. Extremely short plasma half-life (<10 1-2="" and="" causes="" concern="" cumulative="" dosage="" dosing.="" during="" effect="" every="" iv="" min="" no="" of="" p="" permits="" repeated="" sec="" through="" titration="" use="">

Adenoz (6 Mg)(2 ml in Vial)
Celon Labs
Rs. 54.50/Injection
Rs.109

Adenoject (6 Mg)(2 ml in Vial)
Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
Rs. 107.50/Injection
Rs.215

Carnosine (6 Mg)(2 ml in Vial)
Samarth Life Sciences Pvt. Ltd
Rs. 108/Injection
Rs.216

Adenosine (6 Mg)(2 ml in Vial)
Samarth Life Sciences Pvt. Ltd
Rs. 108/Injection
Rs.216

Adenocor 3 Mg(2 ml in Vial)
Sanofi Torrent Ltd
Rs. 120.28/Injection
Rs.240.55

Adnet (6 Mg)(2 ml in Vial)
SPM Drugs Pvt. Ltd.
Rs. 137.50/Injection
Rs.275

Adenocor (6 Mg)(2 ml in Vial)
Sanofi Synthelabo (India) Ltd
Rs. 214.91/Injection
Rs.429.83

Adenoject (30 Mg)(1 Unit in Vial)
Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
Rs. 934/Injection
Rs.934

Carnosine (30 Mg)(1 Unit in Vial)
Samarth Life Sciences Pvt. Ltd
Rs. 995/Injection
Rs.995

Thursday, August 21, 2014

AMOXYCILLIN + DICLOXACILLIN

Amoxicillin (250MG)

INDICATORS
Pregnancy:B Lactation:L1 Lab:NA Food:NA

USE

Respiratory, genito-urinary, skin and soft tissue, ENT infections due to susceptible strains of Gram negative organisms like H.influenzae, E-coli, P.mirabilis and N. gonorrhoea.

SIDE EFFECTS

Abscesses, acute bronchitis, bacteriuria, bronchitis, carbuncles, cellulitis, chronic bronchitis, cystitis, dental abscess, dental abscess (short-course), endocarditis, furunculosis, gonorrhoea, gynecological infections, haemophilus influenzae infections, dizziness, headache, anorexia, iarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, maculopapular rash, rashes, gastritis, indigestion, urticarial skin rash.

DRUG INTERACTION

Amoxicillin is known to interact with other drugs like chloramphenicol, methotrexate, probenecid, rabeprazole, sodium picosulphate, tetracycline (HCl), warfarin (Na).

MECHANISM OF ACTION

Amoxicillin binds to penicillin-binding protein 1A (PBP-1A) located inside the bacterial cell well. Penicillins acylate the penicillin-sensitive transpeptidase C-terminal domain by opening the lactam ring. This inactivation of the enzyme prevents the formation of a cross-link of two linear peptidoglycan strands, inhibiting the third and last stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis. Cell lysis is then mediated by bacterial cell wall autolytic enzymes such as autolysins; it is possible that amoxicllin interferes with an autolysin inhibitor.


Dicloxacillin (250MG)

INDICATORS
Pregnancy:B Lactation:L3 Lab:NA Food:NA

USE

Pneumonia, infections of the ear, urinary tract

SIDE EFFECTS

Pseudomembranous colitis, GI bleeding, hepatitis, cholestatic jaundice, stevens johnson syndrome, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, maculopapular rash, urticaria, phlebitis.

DRUG INTERACTION

Dicloxacillin is known to interact with other drugs like ampicillin, chloramphenicol, probenecid, tetracycline (HCl). Always consult your physician for the change of dose regimen or an alternative drug of choice that may strictly be required.

MECHANISM OF ACTION

Dicloxacillin binding to specific penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located inside the bacterial cell wall, dicloxacillin inhibits the third and last stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis. Cell lysis is then mediated by bacterial cell wall autolytic enzymes such as autolysins.

Wednesday, August 20, 2014

AMOXICILLIN

Amoxicillin  or amoxycillin , and abbreviated amox, is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.

It is a moderate-spectrum, bacteriolytic, β-lactam antibiotic in the aminopenicillin family used to treat susceptible Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It is usually the drug of choice within the class because it is better-absorbed, following oral administration, than other β-lactam antibiotics.

Amoxicillin is susceptible to degradation by β-lactamase-producing bacteria, which are resistant to a narrow spectrum of β-lactam antibiotics, such as penicillin. For this reason, it is often combined with clavulanic acid, a β-lactamase inhibitor. This increases effectiveness by reducing its susceptibility to β-lactamase resistance.

Amoxicillin is one of the most common antibiotics prescribed for children. The drug first became available in 1972. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, a list of the most important medication needed in a basic health system.

INDICATORS
Pregnancy:B Lactation:L1 Lab:NA Food:NA

 USE
Respiratory, genito-urinary, skin and soft tissue, ENT infections due to susceptible strains of Gram negative organisms like H.influenzae, E-coli, P.mirabilis and N. gonorrhoea.

SIDE EFFECTS
Abscesses, acute bronchitis, bacteriuria, bronchitis, carbuncles, cellulitis, chronic bronchitis, cystitis, dental abscess, dental abscess (short-course), endocarditis, furunculosis, gonorrhoea, gynecological infections, haemophilus influenzae infections, dizziness, headache, anorexia, iarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, maculopapular rash, rashes, gastritis, indigestion, urticarial skin rash.

DRUG INTERACTION

Amoxicillin is known to interact with other drugs like chloramphenicol, methotrexate, probenecid, rabeprazole, sodium picosulphate, tetracycline (HCl), warfarin (Na).

MECHANISM OF ACTION

Amoxicillin binds to penicillin-binding protein 1A (PBP-1A) located inside the bacterial cell well. Penicillins acylate the penicillin-sensitive transpeptidase C-terminal domain by opening the lactam ring. This inactivation of the enzyme prevents the formation of a cross-link of two linear peptidoglycan strands, inhibiting the third and last stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis. Cell lysis is then mediated by bacterial cell wall autolytic enzymes such as autolysins; it is possible that amoxicllin interferes with an autolysin inhibitor.

Monday, August 18, 2014

VIZYLAC CAPSULE


(10 Capsules in Strip)
Unichem Laboratories Ltd
Rs. 2.17 / Capsule
Rs.21.75

Composition
Pyridoxine (0.75mg),Riboflavin (2.5mg),D-Panthenol (2.5mg),Thiamine(2.5 mg),Nicotinic Acid (22.5 mg)
Pyridoxine (0.75mg)

INDICATORS
Pregnancy:B Lactation:L2 Lab:NA Food:NA

 USAGE
Anaemia, Deficiency states, Idiopathic sideroblastic anaemia, Isoniazid neuropathy, Oedema and ascites in cirrhosis of the liver, Premenstrual syndrome, Schizophrenia and other psychoses, Vitamin deficiency.

SIDE EFFECTS
Dizziness, Drowsiness, Blurred vision, Pain, Burning.

DRUG INTERACTION
None mentioned.

MECHANISM OF ACTION

Vitamin B6 is the collective term for a group of three related compounds, pyridoxine (PN), pyridoxal (PL) and pyridoxamine (PM), and their phosphorylated derivatives, pyridoxine 5'-phosphate (PNP), pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) and pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP). Although all six of these compounds should technically be referred to as vitamin B6, the term vitamin B6 is commonly used interchangeably with just one of them, pyridoxine. Vitamin B6, principally in its biologically active coenzyme form pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, is involved in a wide range of biochemical reactions, including the metabolism of amino acids and glycogen, the synthesis of nucleic acids, hemogloblin, sphingomyelin and other sphingolipids, and the synthesis of the neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).


Riboflavin (2.5mg)
INDICATORS
Pregnancy:A Lactation:L2 Lab:NA Food:NA

TYPICAL USAGE - Arabinoflavinosis, Vitamin deficiency.

SIDE EFFECTS - Discoloration of urine, Swelling of face, Difficulty breathing, Swelling of lips and tongue.

DRUG INTERACTION - Arabinoflavinosis, Vitamin deficiency.

MECHANISM OF ACTION
Binds to riboflavin hydrogenase, riboflavin kinase, and riboflavin synthase. Riboflavin is the precursor of flavin mononucleotide (FMN, riboflavin monophosphate) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). The antioxidant activity of riboflavin is principally derived from its role as a precursor of FAD and the role of this cofactor in the production of the antioxidant reduced glutathione. Reduced glutathione is the cofactor of the selenium-containing glutathione peroxidases among other things. The glutathione peroxidases are major antioxidant enzymes. Reduced glutathione is generated by the FAD-containing enzyme glutathione reductase.


D-Panthenol (2.5mg)

INDICATORS - Pregnancy:A Lactation:L1 Lab:NA Food:NA


Thiamine(2.5 Mg)

INDICATORS - Pregnancy:C Lactation:L3 Lab:NA Food:NA

TYPICAL USAGE
Lung cancer and pancreatic cancer, mild chronic deficiency, severe deficiency, thiamine deficiency prophylaxis, thiamine deficiency treatment.

SIDE EFFECTS
Nausea, urticaria, Gi bleeding, angioneurotic edema, restlessness, pruritis, pulmonary edema, hemorrhage, cyanosis,

DRUG INTERACTION
Thiamine is known to interact with other drugs like aluminium hydroxide and oxide, amiloride (HCl), bumetanide, chlorthalidone, estradiol (Valerate), estrogens conjugated, fluorouracil, magnesium carbonate, magnesium oxides and hydroxides, metformin (HCl), phenobarbital Sodium, phenobarbitone, triamterene, vecuronium (Br). Always consult your physician for the change of dose regimen or an alternative drug of choice that may strictly be required.

MECHANISM OF ACTION
Thiamine is mainly the transport form of the vitamin, while the active forms are phosphorylated thiamine derivatives. There are five known natural thiamine phosphate derivatives: thiamine monophosphate (ThMP), thiamine diphosphate (ThDP), also sometimes called thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), thiamine triphosphate (ThTP), and the recently discovered adenosine thiamine triphosphate (AThTP), and adenosine thiamine diphosphate. Each derivative has unique functions, however, most are involved as coenzymes.


Nicotinic Acid (22.5 Mg)

INDICATORS - Pregnancy:C Lactation:L5 Lab:NA Food:NA

TYPICAL USAGE - Treatment of nicotine dependence, as an aid to smoking cessation.

SIDE EFFECTS
Urticaria, cramps, myalgia, blurred vision, acanthosis nigricans, ichthyosis, toxic amblyopia, atrial arrhythmias, elevated serum aspartate transaminase, hepatitis, hepatic failure, flushing, headache, pruritus, diarrhea, gastric irritation, flushing, bloating.

DRUG INTERACTION
Nicotinic Acid is known to interact with other drugs like alcohol, atorvastatin, colestipol (HCl), fluvastatin, glibornuride, gliquidone, technetium Tc-99m disofenin, technetium Tc-99m lidofenin. Always consult your physician for the change of dose regimen or an alternative drug of choice that may strictly be required.

MECHANISM OF ACTION
Nicotinic acid is a derivative of vitamin B and is incorporated into coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP), which are involved in multiple cellular metabolic pathways. Nicotinic acid also reduces total serum cholesterol, LDL, VLDL, and triglycerides, and increases HDL cholesterol. It appears to decrease hepatic synthesis of VLDL.