Wednesday, August 20, 2014

AMOXICILLIN

Amoxicillin  or amoxycillin , and abbreviated amox, is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.

It is a moderate-spectrum, bacteriolytic, β-lactam antibiotic in the aminopenicillin family used to treat susceptible Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It is usually the drug of choice within the class because it is better-absorbed, following oral administration, than other β-lactam antibiotics.

Amoxicillin is susceptible to degradation by β-lactamase-producing bacteria, which are resistant to a narrow spectrum of β-lactam antibiotics, such as penicillin. For this reason, it is often combined with clavulanic acid, a β-lactamase inhibitor. This increases effectiveness by reducing its susceptibility to β-lactamase resistance.

Amoxicillin is one of the most common antibiotics prescribed for children. The drug first became available in 1972. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, a list of the most important medication needed in a basic health system.

INDICATORS
Pregnancy:B Lactation:L1 Lab:NA Food:NA

 USE
Respiratory, genito-urinary, skin and soft tissue, ENT infections due to susceptible strains of Gram negative organisms like H.influenzae, E-coli, P.mirabilis and N. gonorrhoea.

SIDE EFFECTS
Abscesses, acute bronchitis, bacteriuria, bronchitis, carbuncles, cellulitis, chronic bronchitis, cystitis, dental abscess, dental abscess (short-course), endocarditis, furunculosis, gonorrhoea, gynecological infections, haemophilus influenzae infections, dizziness, headache, anorexia, iarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, maculopapular rash, rashes, gastritis, indigestion, urticarial skin rash.

DRUG INTERACTION

Amoxicillin is known to interact with other drugs like chloramphenicol, methotrexate, probenecid, rabeprazole, sodium picosulphate, tetracycline (HCl), warfarin (Na).

MECHANISM OF ACTION

Amoxicillin binds to penicillin-binding protein 1A (PBP-1A) located inside the bacterial cell well. Penicillins acylate the penicillin-sensitive transpeptidase C-terminal domain by opening the lactam ring. This inactivation of the enzyme prevents the formation of a cross-link of two linear peptidoglycan strands, inhibiting the third and last stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis. Cell lysis is then mediated by bacterial cell wall autolytic enzymes such as autolysins; it is possible that amoxicllin interferes with an autolysin inhibitor.

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